Gallons of gasoline consumed was multiplied by carbon dioxide per gallon of gasoline to determine carbon dioxide emitted per vehicle per year. Note that this represents CO2 avoided in the year of conversion. Go to the equivalencies calculator page for more information. Monthly Energy Review March 2019, Table A5: Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke. To determine annual greenhouse gas emissions per mile, the following methodology was used: carbon dioxide emissions per gallon of gasoline were divided by the average fuel economy of vehicles to determine carbon dioxide emitted per mile traveled by a typical passenger vehicle. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland. To obtain the amount of energy consumed to charge the smartphone, subtract the amount of energy consumed in “maintenance mode” (0.14 Watts times 22 hours) from the 24-hour energy consumed (14.17 Watt-hours). EE and RE programs are not generally assumed to affect baseload power plants that run all the time, but rather marginal power plants that are brought online as necessary to meet demand. Canhui Wang, Wei-Chang D. Yang, David Raciti, Alina Bruma, Ronald Marx, Amit Agrawal, and Renu Sharma. Reaction conditions: T = 260 °C, P = 360 bar, GHSV = 10,471 h −1 . 8.89 × 10-3 metric tons CO2/gallon gasoline × 11,484 VMT car/truck average × 1/22.3 miles per gallon car/truck average × 1 CO2, CH4, and N2O/0.989 CO2 = 4.63 metric tons CO2E/vehicle /year. Savings Calculator for ENERGY STAR Qualified Light Bulbs. Urban tree database and allometric equations. The average vehicle miles traveled (VMT) in 2017 was 11,484 miles per year (FHWA 2019). The average carbon dioxide coefficient of distillate fuel oil is 429.61 kg CO2 per 42-gallon barrel (EPA 2018). The data are from the Annual Energy Outlook 2019, Table A8: Electricity Supply, Disposition, Prices, and Emissions available at: hectares × 103) = -0.52 metric tons of carbon sequestered per hectare per year*. The national average carbon dioxide output rate for generated electricity in 2016 was 998.4 lbs CO2 per megawatt-hour (EPA 2018), which translates to about 1,072.1 lbs CO2 per megawatt-hour for delivered electricity (assuming transmission and distribution losses of 6.9%) (EPA 2018; EIA 2019b).1. Carbon dioxide emissions avoided per year per wind turbine installed were determined by multiplying the average electricity generated per wind turbine in a year by the annual wind national marginal emission rate (EPA 2019). Carbon dioxide emissions per barrel of crude oil are determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). Carbon sequestration is dependent on growth rate, which varies by location and other conditions. Passenger vehicles are defined as 2-axle 4-tire vehicles, including passenger cars, vans, pickup trucks, and sport/utility vehicles. In the team's experiment, the aluminum nanoparticles were deposited on a layer of graphite, a form of carbon. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2 e or CO 2 eq or CO 2-e) is calculated from GWP. A 9 watt light-emitting diode (LED) bulb produces the same light output as a 43 watt incandescent light bulb. To estimate losses of growing trees, in lieu of a census conducted to accurately account for the total amount of seedlings planted versus surviving to a certain age, the sequestration rate (in lbs per tree) is multiplied by the survival factor to yield a probability-weighted sequestration rate. [14.17 Wh – (22 hours x 0.14 Watts)] x 1 kWh/1,000 Wh = 0.011 kWh/smartphone charged, 0.011 kWh/charge x 1,558.8 pounds CO2/MWh delivered electricity x 1 MWh/1,000 kWh x 1 metric ton/2,204.6 lbs = 7.84 x 10-6 metric tons CO2/smartphone charged. The amount of coal in an average railcar was assumed to be 100.19 short tons, or 90.89 metric tons (Hancock 2001). 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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader: Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks: Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Carbon dioxide has evolved from being considered as a greenhouse gas to a valuable carbon feedstock for the generation of artificial fuels and valuable chemicals. Carbon Dioxide Quantity Conversions Calculator , This Calculator will help you to convert Carbon Dioxide Quantity from different unit ( Pounds , Kg, Cubic Feet ( SCF ) , CU Meter (nm3), gallons, liters) In 2017, the average nameplate capacity of wind turbines installed in the U.S. was 2.32 MW (DOE 2018). Carbon dioxide emissions per ton of coal were determined by multiplying heat content times the carbon coefficient times the fraction oxidized times the ratio of the molecular weight of carbon dioxide to that of carbon (44/12). In the presence of carbon dioxide gas, which the team injected into the system, the graphite served the role of plucking individual oxygen atoms from carbon dioxide, reducing it to carbon monoxide. To determine annual greenhouse gas emissions per passenger vehicle, the following methodology was used: VMT was divided by average gas mileage to determine gallons of gasoline consumed per vehicle per year. Consequently, the change in carbon density from converting forestland to cropland would be -85.27 metric tons of C/hectare/year of biomass plus -4.10 metric tons C/hectare/year of soil C, minus 10.26 metric tons C/hectare/year from drained organic soils, equaling a total loss of 99.62 metric tons C/hectare/year (or -40.32 metric tons C/acre/year) in the year of conversion. This allowed the nanoparticles to transfer the LSP energy to the graphite. Image. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Appliance and Equipment Standards Program, Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers; Final Rule, page 38,284 (PDF), This calculation does not include any greenhouse gases other than CO, Regional marginal emission rates are also available on the. The new work also suggests that LSPs offer a way for a slew of other chemical reactions that now require a large infusion of energy to proceed at ordinary temperatures and pressures using plasmonic nanoparticles.