Induswe B, Opinya G, Khasakhala LI, Owino R. 2018. Yao L, Deng Y, Yang S, Zhao J, Wang X, Cui Z. Excessive fluoride exposure can cause osteoarthritis. Using the Khartoum Ministry of Education’s method, the schooling performance for the boys’ and girls’ primary schools in the 16 areas where the F samples were taken and were assessed by calculating the average score and high score prevalence… Generally, the schooling performance in these rural areas was poor compared to urban areas. A further review of the 67 IQ studies, including Quick Facts, Methodological Limitations, and Summary. (1) All children were born and raised in the respective areas. (B) More children have low IQ (< 69) in areas with High F/High I (10.53%), High F only (7.32%), and High F/Low I (12.82%) than in control group (1.61%), “The number of children whose level of intelligence is lower is significantly increased in regions of high fluoride/iodine, regions of high fluoride only, regions of high fluoride/low iodine, against their respective comparative groups. 1,000 children, 495 (49.5%) female and 405 (50.5%) male. (B) Significantly more children in High-F villages have “critical state” IQ, p < 0.01. (p=0.06). 126 children (85 children from low-F village, 41 children from high-F village), Not provided in English abstract (full study is in Persian), The history of illnesses affecting the nervous system, head trauma, birth weight (>2.5kg or, “In the high fluoride area the mean IQ of children (87.9±11) was significantly lower than in the low fluoride area (98.9±12.9) (P=0.025).”, ““Based on the findings of this study, exposure of children to high levels of fluoride may carry the risk of impaired development of intelligence.”. Fluoride lowers IQ – the paper. The Maternal-Infant Research on Environment Chemicals Study (from which the women were chosen) was supported by the Chemicals Management Plan at Health Canada, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research. (3) Parents’ educational level was determined (and found to have a significant influence on IQ, p < 0.01). • The Mother-Offspring studies. Schools: Virajpet (low fluoride level < 1.2 ppm), Banavara (Medium fluoride level 1.2-2 ppm), and Mastihalli (High fluoride levels > 3 ppm). This is because fluoride level in drinking water is highly correlated with UF level . Strengths of our study include using urine fluoride as an internal exposure index and thus minimizing the measurement error of exposure, adjusting up to 30 potential confounding covariates including child age and gene polymorphismin regressing IQ on urine fluoride in children, and careful modeling with applications of cross-validation, bootstrap techniques, and sensitivity analysis. It was found that alleles of the COMT gene were codominantly inherited, and the activity of different genotypes of the COMT gene expressed in vivo was somewhat different. “Above average IQ of children in the control group was 97.1% (101/104),which was significantly higher than that of long and short treatment groups; after a lengthy treatment, mental retardation detection rate was significantly lower in the low-age group,8-10 year-old children(x2 =7.542,P < 0.01). (1991). Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), a measure of global intellectual functioning, was the primary outcome. Control: 1.34 ± 0.64 mg/L; Long-term defluoridation: 2.33 ± 0.18 mg/L; Short-term defluoridation: 3.03 ± 0.16) mgL. (2000). This test has good reliability and validity; it is applied to evaluate developmental delay in children between 3 months to 5 years in Mexico by the SSA (CNPSS, 2013). (A) Children in areas with high-fluoride and low-iodine have significantly lower IQs than children in areas with high-fluoride and high-iodine, p < 0.01. Combined Raven’s Test for RuralChina (CRT-RC), “[C]hildren residing in areas with higher than normal water fluoride level demonstrated more impaired development of intelligence and moderate [dental fluorosis]. High-F village = 4.55 mg/L Lower-F village = 0.89 mg/L. (2) Children with bone and joint deformities or nervous system symptoms were excluded from study. Rural version of Chinese Standardized Raven Test, Average IQ of children in High-F village (100.24, “The results of this study indicate that there is significant difference between the intellectual ability of the 7–14 year old children from the [fluorosis] endemic area and those of the control, and moreover that the average IQ of the children from the endemic area is clearly lower.”, 420 children (196 children from endemic fluorosis area; 224 children from non-endemic area). The AWM for the children whose household water had low fluoride had higher AWMI 122.58±19.9 compared to those whose household had high fluoride in the with ANOVA F (2, 266) = 17.968, p?.0001 and Tukey HSD for low and medium (m=-5.919, se=3.146, p=.145, low and high fluoride, (m=-18.559.